Comparative analysis of adiponectin isoform distribution in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus and after delivery

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Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the distribution of circulating adiponectin isoforms in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and compare isoform distribution changes 12 months after delivery.

Design

Cross-sectional study

Setting

University Hospital.

Population

Sixty-four consecutive pregnant women who underwent routine prenatal tests for GDM between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation. The study group included 36 women diagnosed with GDM, 30 of whom underwent re-testing for diabetes 12 months after delivery. The control group included 28 healthy pregnant women.

Methods

Quantitative determination of total adiponectin and its isoforms in serum was performed with the multimeric adiponectin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

Results

Total adiponectin concentration in women with GDM was significantly lower than in women without GDM. Among adiponectin isoforms, significantly lower concentrations of multimers and trimers in women with GDM were found in comparison to controls, while the concentration of hexamers did not differ between the groups. After delivery, a significant increase in total adiponectin and in the concentration of multimers and trimers was found in women with history of GDM. Additionally, we found that multimers and hexamers were negatively correlated with body mass index before and during gestation, as well as after delivery, and middle molecular weight isoforms in gestation were negatively correlated with birthweight.

Conclusions

Hypoadiponectinemia during GDM was characterized by a significant, reversible decrease in multimeric levels; thus this isoform seems to function in a cohesive way with total adiponectin. Negative correlations of adiponectin isomers with body mass index indicate that there is a possibility to normalize total adiponectin and prevent GDM.

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