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Twenty-five normal subjects and 173 clinical patients received standard bithermal caloric testing. Vestibular nystagmus was evaluated for cumulative slow phase velocity from the summated horizontal eye recording and independent recording of the left and right eye. These data revealed that cold water stimulation produced more intense activation of the ipsilateral eye. Simultaneous closed-circuit video and D.C. electro-oculographic recordings from eight normal rhesus monkeys in response to cold water irrigations confirmed the fact that this stimulus leads to differential activation of the extraocular muscles. A possible explanation for this finding is discussed.