Otological Manifestations of Charge Association

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The combined findings of abnormalities of the incus and stapes, absence of the oval window, absence of the stapedius muscle (with absent pyramidal eminence and tympanic sinus in most cases), and abnormalities of different parts of the inner ear (dysplastic cochlea, hypoplastic or dysplastic vestibule, and absent semicircular canals) are characteristic of the CHARGE association. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging using 1-mm-thick contiguous slices proved useful in demonstrating the broad spectrum of temporal bone abnormalities in patients with the CHARGE association.

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