Cochlear Implantation in Patients With CHARGE Syndrome

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To determine the optimal surgical approach for cochlear implantation (CI) preoperatively based on the spatial relation of a displaced facial nerve (FN) and middle ear structures and to analyze clinical outcomes of CHARGE syndrome.


Facial nerve displacement and associated deviation of inner ear structures were analyzed in 13 patients (17 ears) with CHARGE syndrome who underwent CI. Surgical accessibility through the facial recess was assessed based on anatomical landmarks. Postoperative speech performance and associated clinical characteristics were analyzed.


The most consistently identified ear anomalies were semicircular canal aplasia (100%), ossicular anomaly (100%), and vestibular hypoplasia (88%). Facial nerve displacement was found in 77% of cases (anteroinferior: 47%, anterior: 24%, inferior: 6%). The width of available surgical space around facial recess was significantly greater in cases of facial recess approach (2.85 ± 0.9 mm) than those of alternative approach (0.12 ± 0.29 mm, P = .02). Postoperatively, 53% achieved better than category 4 on the categories of auditory perception (CAP) scale. The CAP category was significantly correlated with internal auditory canal diameter (P = .025) and did not differ according to the applied surgical approach.


Preoperative determination of surgical accessibility through facial recess would be useful for safe surgical approach, and successful hearing rehabilitation was achievable by applying appropriate surgical approaches.

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