The aim of this study was to evaluate a brief team training program in relation to teams’ observed nontechnical skills (NTSs) in surgery, teams’ perceptions of safety culture, and the training implementation. We used mixed methods to analyze structured observations of 179 surgeries, semistructured interviews with surgical team members from four selected surgical specialties, and a survey. There were significant (P < .001) improvements in surgical teams’ observed NTSs and in the use of the World Health Organization’s Surgical Safety Checklist after participation in the training program. Nonsignificant results included increased perceived safety climate and decreased perceived teamwork climate. From participant interviews, we identified that production pressure and time constraints were the biggest barriers to implementation and the greatest enabler was the organization’s support for staff education initiatives. Most participants perceived the content of the program to be useful. These results highlight the complexities inherent in the development and evaluation of interdisciplinary patient safety interventions.