Seasonal Variation in the Occurrence of Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment

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Abstract

Purpose

Seasonal predilection is reported in the occurrence of various systemic and ocular diseases. An attempt was made to evaluate the existence of such an association in the development of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). The aims of the study were to investigate the existence of seasonal variation in the occurrence of RRD and to analyze the predisposing factors for such variation.

Design

This was a retrospective review.

Methods

A retrospective review of all cases of RRD during a period of 2 years (June 2012 to May 2014) was carried out. The details regarding demographic profile, clinical features, and the month of occurrence of RRD were collected. Climatic parameters such as temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, and number of sun hours were noted. The various factors were compared with SPSS version 17.0, and χ2 test was used for statistical analysis.

Results

Of the 76 cases of RRD, 38.2% occurred in the hot humid summer months (P = 0.046) followed by 22.4% in the cool humid winter months. Subtotal retinal detachments were more common in summer (P = 0.015). Factors suggestive of vitreous dehydration such as posterior vitreous detachment, intraocular pressure, and intraocular pressure of fellow eye were not associated with this seasonal variation. The peak minimum temperature, peak maximum temperature, and sun hours were related to this finding. High relative humidity and low rainfall were also associated.

Conclusions

Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment shows definite seasonal variation which peaks in the summer months. Meteorological parameters may further play a role in determining the onset of retinal detachment.

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