There are 3 approved pharmaceutical agents for treating macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion (RVO): dexamethasone (a corticosteroid) implant and ranibizumab and aflibercept (both antivascular endothelial growth factor agents). All show a superior ability to improve vision and reduce macular thickness in comparison with sham injections or macular grid laser treatment. Prompt treatment with these agents may lead to a better outcome. A review of randomized trials of injected aflibercept or ranibizumab reveals protocol variations. They include “as needed” injections until functional and anatomical changes are achieved, preceded by either 1 injection or 3 to 6 monthly injections as loading doses. Ocular and systemic adverse effects of vascular endothelial growth factor antagonists for macular edema secondary to RVO are rarely severe. The antiedematous response to a single intravitreal dexamethasone implant is maximal 1 to 3 months after the injection. Intraocular pressure elevation and cataract aggravation should be monitored after the use of intravitreal dexamethasone implants. Intravitreal dexamethasone implants and ranibizumab injections reduce not only macular edema, but also the risk of retinal ischemia and neovascularization in patients with RVO.