An optimization strategy based on desirability function approach (DFA) together with response surface methodology (RSM) has been used to optimize production medium in L-glutamine fermentation. Fermentation problems often force to reach a compromise between different experimental variables in order to achieve the most suitable strategy applying in industrial production. The importance of the use of multi-objective optimization methods lies in the ability to cope with this kind of problems. A sequential RSM with different combinations of glucose and (NH4)2SO4 was performed to attain the optimal medium (OM-1) in glutamine production. Based on the result of RSM and the evaluation of production cost, a more economical optimal medium (OM-2) was obtained with the aid of DFA. In DFA study, glutamate, the main by-product in glutamine fermentation as another response was considered. Compared with OM-1 in validated experiment, similar amounts of glutamine were obtained in OM-2 while the concentration of glutamate and the production cost decreased by 53.6 and 7.1%, respectively.