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Surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight analysis was used to monitor both the kinetics and heterogeneity of product formation during the biotinylation of a number of model proteins and peptide targets. The selected molecules were the IgG-binding protein, protein A, human serum albumin, and a synthetic peptide corresponding to the N terminus of a streptococcal M1 protein. The extent of biotinylation was determined by kinetic analysis of the shift in molecular mass from the native material. Each residue modified by reaction with N-hydroxysuccinimide biotin resulted in an addition of ˜341 amu to the native protein or polypeptide. The novelty of the method was in the ability to determine the molecular mass shift, without first separating the targeted molecule from the biotinylating reagent. The analysis was rapid, simple, and provided information on the average number of biotin molecules added and the homogeneity of the resulting product.