Analysis of regulators for modulated gluconic acid production under surface fermentation (SF) condition using grape must as the cheap carbohydrate source, by mutant Aspergillus niger ORS-4·410. Replacement of conventional fermentation condition by solid-state surface fermentation (SSF) for semi-continuous production of gluconic acid by pseudo-immobilization of A. niger ORS-4·410.Methods and Results
Grape must after rectification was utilized for gluconic acid production in batch fermentation in SF and SSF processes using mutant strain of A. niger ORS-4·410. Use of rectified grape must led to the improved levels of gluconic acid production (80–85 g l−1) in the fermentation medium containing 0·075% (NH4)2HPO4; 0·1% KH2PO4 and 0·015% MgSO4·7H2O at an initial pH 6·6 (±0·1) under surface fermentation. Gluconic acid production was modulated by incorporating the 2% soybean oil, 2% starch and 1% H2O2 in fermentation medium at continuously high aeration rate (2·0 l min−1). Interestingly, 95·8% yield of gluconic acid was obtained when A. niger ORS-4·410 was pseudo-immobilized on cellulose fibres (bagasse) under SSF. Four consecutive fermentation cycles were achieved with a conversion rate of 0·752–0·804 g g−1 of substrate into gluconic acid under SSF.Conclusions
Use of additives modulated the gluconic acid production under SF condition. Semi-continuous production of gluconic acid was achieved with pseudo-immobilized mycelia of A. niger ORS-4·410 having a promising yield (95·8%) under SSF condition.Significance and Impact of the Study
The bioconversion of grape must into modulated gluconic acid production under SSF conditions can further be employed in fermentation industries by replacing the conventional carbohydrate sources and expensive, energy consuming fermentation processes.