With the rise in human population across the globe especially in developing countries, the incidence of microbial infections are increasing with greater pace. On the other hand, available medication and therapies are found to be insufficient for the complete cure of such microbial infections due to the development of resistance against various antibiotics. Therefore, to cope up the menace of microbial infections and drug resistance, there is demand for new and compelling technology, which has the ability to impede these problems. Many research groups worldwide are finding a ray of hope in nanomaterials owing to their unique properties. In the present review we have discussed the reasons behind the development of new materials based on nanotechnology. It is mainly focused on pioneering studies on application of nanomaterials like carbon nanotube, fullerene, dendrimers, nanocomposite and metal nanoparticles in combating dreadful pathogens. Moreover, the concerns about their toxicity have also been discussed.