Nutrient assessment of olive leaf residues processed by solid-state fermentation as an innovative feedstuff additive

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Olive leaf residue feedstuff additives were prepared by solid-state fermentation (SSF), and its feeding effects on broiler chickens were examined.

Methods and Results

The fermentation's nutrient value, that is, protein enrichment, cellulase activity, tannic acid degradation and amino acid enhancement, was determined. The effect of different strains, including molds (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae and Trichoderma viride) and yeasts (Candida utilis, Candida tropicalis and Geotrichum candidum), and the fermentation time on the nutrient values of the feedstuff additives was investigated. The experimental results showed that the optimal parameters for best performance were A. niger and C. utilis in a 1 : 1 ratio (v/v) in co-culture fermentation for 5 days. Under these conditions, the total content of amino acids in the fermented olive leaf residues increased by 22·0% in comparison with that in the raw leaf residues. Both Glutamic acid and Aspartic acid contents were increased by more than 25·4%. Broiler chickens fed with different amounts of feedstuff additives were assessed. The results demonstrated that the chicken weight gains increased by 120%, and normal serum biochemical parameters were improved significantly after 10% of the feedstuff additives were supplemented to the daily chicken feed for 28 days.


The co-culture combination of A. niger and C. utilis with SSF for olive leaf residue had the best nutrient values. The addition of 10% fermented olive leaf residue facilitated the chicken growth and development.

Significance and Impact of the Study

This study reveals that olive leaf residues fermented by SSF exhibited considerable potential as feed additives for feeding poultry.

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