A retrospective investigation of 75 EDTA-decalcified Jamshidi biopsies collected over a 2-year period at Aarhus University Hospital was performed. The biopsies originated from 75 patients suffering from idiopathic myelofibrosis, other chronic myeloproliferative disorders, or other conditions with known associations with bone marrow fibrosis. The relative volumes of trabecular and woven bone, as well as haematopoietic and non-haematopoietic tissue, were estimated histomorphometrically. The degree of fibrosis was estimated semiquantitatively. Finally, the thickness of trabecular osteons was estimated from the number of lamellae by counting. Patients with idiopathic myelofibrosis had statistically significantly more bone tissue than the other groups of patients. The osteosclerosis was primarily due to woven bone. Larger cancellous osteons also suggested a positive balance in bone remodelling. The amount of bone tissue showed furthermore a statistically significant increase through the groups of polycythaemia vera, essential thrombocythaemia, chronic myelogenous leukaemia and idiopathic myelofibrosis. Parallel to the increase in the amount of bone, an increase in the degree of marrow fibrosis was detected. The positive correlation between the amount of bone and the degree of marrow fibrosis was statistically highly significant (p=0.0008).