Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) 1–6 were assessed in 138 renal cell carcinomas (RCC) using immunohistochemistry and selected samples by Western blotting analysis. Oxidative/nitrosative damage was evaluated using nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity. The expressions of Prxs were correlated with tumor grade and survival and nitrotyrosine reactivity. Non-malignant kidney tubular cells showed positivity with variable intensity for all six Prxs. In RCCs, most cases were positive for Prxs 1 and 2, while only 15–20% of tumors showed expression for Prxs 3 and 4. Prx 2 was associated with tumors of a lower grade (p=0.009) and with a lower frequency of distant metastases (p=0.046). Patients with tumors expressing Prx2 had better prognosis (p=0.027). Instead, nitrotyrosine was significantly associated with high grade tumors (p=0.001). Compared with the non-malignant kidney tubular cells, low Prx expression in the tumor cells can make them more susceptible to oxidative damage. Prx 2 was more abundantly expressed in low grade tumors, suggesting that this protein could play a role in preventing the development of oxidative damage, which in turn can lead to the activation of pathways leading to aggressive tumors.