In this study, biologically active compounds were isolated from Protaetia brevitarsis larva (PBL) by dichloromethane extraction. The dichloromethane extract from PBL was highly cytotoxic to various cancer cells. From a silica gel column chromatograpy of this extract, we obtained four fractions (F-2, F-4, F-5 and F-7) having apoptosis-inducing activity. These fractions induced DNA ladder and caspase-3 activation during apoptosis in colon 26 tumor cells. In1H and13C NMR and mass spectral analysis of the fraction F-2 showing the highest apoptosis-inducing activity, we found that the fraction was composed of three free fatty acids such as palmitic acid, (Z)-9-octadecenoic acid and octadecenoic acid. These results indicate that the dichloromethane extract of PBL includes anticancer components composed of at least three fatty acids, and apoptosis-inducing activity of the extract was mediated by caspase-3 activation in tumor cells.