Qualitative studies of persons with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may affect clinical practice and social policy. However, methodological and ethical challenges may present during studies of persons with these specific mental illnesses. The purpose of this paper is to increase transparency about how researchers addressed these challenges during a recent grounded theory study about engagement in primary care. As the researchers addressed the challenges, they increased understanding about persons with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. They also gained insight about the challenges of studying persons with these specific mental illnesses and about the rigor and credibility of qualitative methods.