|| Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid
The Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS) is used by psychiatric nurses for screening and evaluating patients' treatment outcomes for a variety of mental health problems. This study investigated longitudinal and gender measurement invariance of WSAS using structural equation modeling within a help-seeking problem gambling sample (n = 445), and an intervention program for depression and anxiety sample (n = 444). The concept of functional impairment was defined by all WSAS items in males and females at pre- and post-treatment assessments. These findings confirm that the WSAS is a robust and efficacious instrument for evaluating treatment outcomes in two differing populations.