The microbial production of 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) by Klebsiella pneumoniae XJPD-Li under different aeration strategies were investigated. In batch fermentation, the results showed that the final concentration of 1,3-PD and yield on glycerol were 13.44 g/l and 0.73 mol/mol under the anaerobic condition (N2, 0.4 vvm), 11.55 g/l and 0.62 mol/mol without aeration, and 8.73 g/l and 0.47 mol/mol under the aerobic condition (air, 0.4 vvm), respectively. Under the aerobic condition, the yield of 1,3-PD on glycerol was the lowest, while the biomass (optical density at 650 nm) was the highest among these three conditions. In the fed-batch culture, the final concentration and the yield of 1,3-PD was 60.82 g/l and 0.61 mol/mol under the anaerobic condition (N2, 0.4 vvm), 56.43 g/l and 0.53 mol/mol without aeration, and 65.26 g/l and 0.56 mol/mol under the aerobic condition. All these three conditions had good productivities of 1,3-PD, which were 3.35 g/l•h under the anaerobic condition (N2, 0.4 vvm), 3.13 g/l•h without aeration, and 3.16 g/l•h under the aerobic condition within the initial 12 h.