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Degradation of bis-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (BEHP) by microbial associations of the water and bottom sediments of the Selenga River and Lake Baikal and by pure cultures of microbial species belonging to various taxa isolated from the sediments under discussion is studied. It is shown that intense biological degradation occurs in both water and sediments. The degrees of conversion in closed experimental systems on minimal media are 46 and 24%, respectively. The most active of the organisms studied is a Micromironospora actinomycete. It degraded BEHP by 36% of its initial concentration. Spore-forming bacteria and microorganisms of the genus Pseudomonas were less active (17–23% and 7–11%).