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Two continuous field variables, called as continuity tensor and damage variable tensor, are used to describe the anisotropic responses of an elastic-brittle material under transverse impact load. Based on the continuum damage mechanics, anisotropic damage constitutive equations in both full and incremental forms are proposed here. The expressions of effective elastic module tensor, damage variable tensor and damage propagation force tensor are further derived, and the methods for determining the tensors are explained in detail. An example of strain and damage response of a fiber reinforced composite laminated plate under transverse impact load is employed to demonstrate the application of this theory. In the example, the damage variable coupled with geometric large deformation of laminated plate is also considered. The calculating results illustrate the influence of damage on strain field in the impacted laminated plate.