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Ni and TiN coatings on alumina particles were achieved using a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The coated alumina was then used as raw materials to prepare alumina/heat-resistant steel (HRS) composites. The effects of Ni/TiN coatings on the alumina/HRS interface strength and oxidation resistance at elevated temperature were investigated. It is found that the both coatings can improve the alumina/HRS interface bonding strength and Ni coating has a more significant effect. For the composite made from Ni-coated alumina and HRS, the interface exhibited a better oxidation resistance due to the dissolution of Ni coating into the HRS matrix. However, the composite of TiN-coated alumina/HRS has a poor oxidation resistance behavior because TiN still existed on the alumina/HRS interface.