Accumulate evidence has implicated dopamine D2 receptor gene polymorphisms in the etiology of schizophrenia. A single nucleotide polymorphism, −141C insertion/deletion (Ins/Del) (rs1799732), in the promoter region of the dopamine D2 receptor gene has been linked to schizophrenia; however, the data are inconclusive. This study investigated whether the −141C polymorphism is associated with the risk of schizophrenia in different ethnic groups by performing a meta-analysis. A total of 24 case–control studies examining the association between −141C Ins/Del polymorphism and schizophrenia were identified according to established inclusion criteria. Significant association was revealed between −141C Ins/Del polymorphism and schizophrenia risk in dominant genetic model (Ins/Ins + Ins/Del versus Del/Del) (odds ratio = 0.33, 95% confidence interval = 0.14–0.81, z = 2.41, P = 0.02) in Chinese Han but not in Caucasian, Japanese or India populations. Our results indicate that −141C Ins/Del polymorphism might be a susceptibility factor for schizophrenia in Chinese Han population.