This paper describes a cross-sectional study with subjects and raters blind to HIV status to assess psychiatric morbidity associated with HIV in a sample of working adults in Western Kenya. Subjects were recruited from an occupational health clinic for statutory annual health checks of workers in the food industry. Psychiatric interviews and neuropsychological tests were conducted. Of 230 subjects, 34% were HIV positive. Women had a higher rate than men, and those who worked as bargirls or were divorced, widowed or separated were particularly at risk. There were no substantial differences in psychiatric morbidity or neuropsychological functioning between the HIV-positive and HIV-negative subjects.