Previous research has revealed that major depression is accompanied by disorders in excitatory amino acids, e.g. glutamate and aspartate, and alterations in serum levels of other amino acids, e.g. serine, glycine and taurine. The aim of the present study was to examine serum levels of aspartate, asparagine, glutamate, glutamine, serine, glycine, threonine, histidine, alanine, taurine and arginine in major depression patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). No significant differences in the serum concentrations of any of the above amino acids could be found between patients with and without TRD and normal controls. Non-responders to treatment with antidepressants during a period of 5 weeks were characterized by significantly lower serum levels of aspartate, asparagine, serine, threonine and taurine. A 5-week period of treatment with antidepressants significantly reduced the serum levels of aspartate, glutamate and taurine, and significantly increased the serum concentrations of glutamine. The results suggest that alterations in serum levels of aspartate, asparagine, serine, threonine and taurine may predict the subsequent response to treatment with antidepressants, and that the latter may modulate serum levels of excitatory amino acids and taurine.