The association between meal timing and frequency with cardiometabolic profile in patients with bipolar disorder

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Abstract

Objective:

The goal of this study was to explore the association of timing of and frequency of meals with markers of cardiometabolic risk in patients with bipolar disorder in out-patient maintenance treatment.

Methods:

We used Pittsburgh Sleep Diary and actigraphy measures for individuals with bipolar I disorder. Linear and logistic regression analyses were used to determine whether dinnertime, instability of dinnertime, and/or interval between meals were associated with metabolic syndrome and its components.

Results:

Later dinnertime was associated with greater waist circumference (β = 0.25, P = 0.02) after adjusting for age, sex, dinner-to-bed interval, and sleep duration. Longer breakfast-to-lunch intervals were also associated with greater waist circumferences (β =−.35, P = .002) after adjusting for age, sex, and sleep duration. Neither instability of dinnertime nor number of meals per day was associated with the metabolic syndrome or its components.

Conclusion:

Weight gain is often perceived as inevitable side-effect of medications. While patients often need to be on medication to function, a more careful lifestyle assessment with attention to social rhythms and timing of activities may be critical not only for mood stability, but also to reduce cardiovascular risk.

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