Cotinine, Thioether, and Glucuronide Excretion among Active and Passive Bidi Smokers in India


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Abstract

ABSTRACT.The authors examined biomarkers for environmental tobacco smoke exposure (ETS) from bidis (Indian cigarettes) among male smokers, their nonsmoking female family members (passive smokers), and an unexposed control group (N = 66). The 3 parameters used to determine the magnitude of exposure were cotinine (a tobacco-specific alkaloid indicating nicotine exposure) and thioethers and glucuronides (indicators of electrophilic burden). Urinary excretion of cotinine was significantly higher among active smokers (4.30 ± 1.18), compared with passive smokers (wives = 1.76 ± 0.50; daughters = 0.50 ± 0.26). Similar trends were noted for thioethers and glucuronides. The authors found that cotinine and glucuronide levels were correlated significantly with exposure to ETS among both active and passive bidi smokers.

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