Cotinine, Thioether, and Glucuronide Excretion among Active and Passive Bidi Smokers in India

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ABSTRACT.The authors examined biomarkers for environmental tobacco smoke exposure (ETS) from bidis (Indian cigarettes) among male smokers, their nonsmoking female family members (passive smokers), and an unexposed control group (N = 66). The 3 parameters used to determine the magnitude of exposure were cotinine (a tobacco-specific alkaloid indicating nicotine exposure) and thioethers and glucuronides (indicators of electrophilic burden). Urinary excretion of cotinine was significantly higher among active smokers (4.30 ± 1.18), compared with passive smokers (wives = 1.76 ± 0.50; daughters = 0.50 ± 0.26). Similar trends were noted for thioethers and glucuronides. The authors found that cotinine and glucuronide levels were correlated significantly with exposure to ETS among both active and passive bidi smokers.

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