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In this study, the authors assessed the impact of particulate air pollution on first respiratory hospitalization. Study subjects were children less than 3 years of age living in Vancouver, British Columbia, who had their first hospitalization as a result of any respiratory disease (ICD-9 codes 460-519) during the period from June 1, 1995, to March 31, 1999. The authors used logistic regression to estimate the associations between ambient concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and first hospitalization. The adjusted odds ratios for first respiratory hospitalization associated with mean and maximal PM10-2.5 with a lag of 3 days were 1.12 (95% confidence interval: 0.98, 1.28) and 1.13 (1.00, 1.27). After adjustment for gaseous pollutants, the corresponding odds ratios were 1.22 (1.02, 1.48) and 1.14 (0.99, 1.32). The data indicated the possibility of harmful effects from coarse PM on first hospitalization for respiratory disease in early childhood.