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The effect of blood cadmium (Cd), which reflects not only Cd body burden but also recent Cd exposure and communicates with fetal blood in the placenta, on newborn size at birth was investigated. Blood Cd of 55 mothers from Toyama, Japan, at 30-32 gestational weeks was measured using a flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The relationship between blood Cd and newborn size was analyzed after adjustment for gestational age and maternal build. A significant inverse correlation was found between infant height and maternal blood Cd. After adjustment for gestational age and maternal weight at 30-32 gestational weeks, the significant inverse relationship between maternal blood Cd and infant height was shown using the multiple regression analysis. Newborn size might be influenced by maternal blood Cd levels to which infants may be exposed during gestation.