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In this study, the authors examined the concentrations and mineralogical analyses of asbestos, and investigated mesothelioma risk in southeastern Anatolia, Turkey. They used a gravimetric dust sampler to collect samples from 2 villages and 2 asbestos mines (1 active). Samples were then evaluated by an X-ray diffractometer and an electron microscope. The authors found high concentrations of asbestos in an active mine (4.9 fibers[f]/cm3) and at a house that was plastered with asbestos (1.24 f/cm3) and had a very active population. They found a low concentration (0.0042 f/cm3) in indoor measurements taken in Armutova village, and an even lower concentration (0.000081 f/cm3) in the inactive mine environment. Outdoor measurements included a low concentration of 0.007 f/cm3 in the village environment, and a high concentration of 1.17 f/cm3 on the mine road during the passing of a sheep herd. The people in the region are continuously exposed to asbestos during normal activities. This cumulative exposure to asbestos carries sufficient risks for mesothelioma development.