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The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health evaluated farm pesticide exposure and glioma risk in a study that included 457 glioma cases and 648 population-based controls, all adult men (18-80 yr old) and nonmetropolitan residents of Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. Multiple logistic regressions were used to control for farm residence, age, age group, education, and exposure to other pesticides. No associations were found between glioma and 12 specific pesticides. We estimated adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and found reduced glioma risk for insecticides (OR = 0.53, CI = 0.37-0.77), fumigants (OR = 0.57, CI = 0.34-0.95), and organochlorines (OR = 0.66, CI = 0.47-0.94). In analyses excluding proxy respondents (47% of cases) most CIs included 1.0. No positive association of farm pesticide exposure and glioma was found. Other farm exposures may explain the excess brain cancer risk seen in previous studies.