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In a non-randomized cohort study, we compared continuous with interrupted sutures for the closure of the lower uterine segment at cesarean section. Eighty-two women, who underwent cesarean section at the Department of Obstetrics at the University Hospital of Vienna between January and May 2000, were included in the study. Thirty-eight patients had single-layer closure of the lower uterine segment and 43 patients had closure with interrupted sutures. There were significant differences in total operating-time (32 min vs 40 min, P=0.001) and in the pre- and postoperative maternal hemoglobin (ΔHb 0.6 g/dl vs 1.1 g/dl, P<0.01), but there was no significant difference in sonographically diagnosed hematomas (32% vs 21%, P=0.27). No woman had fever, the median hospitalization time was 6 days, and there were no re-admissions. In both groups, the median need for analgesics was 150 mg diclofenac (P=0.22). Continuous single-layer closure of the lower uterine segment at cesarean section saves operating time, reduces blood loss, and introduces less foreign material into the wound.