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Most patients with peripheral arterial occlusion have underlying atherosclerosis. Peripheral arterial thrombosis induced by chemotherapy in gynecological malignancies is rare.A 60-year-old woman was diagnosed with ovarian carcinoma coexisting with endometrial carcinoma after surgical histopathological examination. Chemotherapy was started on postoperative day 11. On day 2 of chemotherapy, she developed bilateral lower extremity cyanosis. Thrombocytopenia due to chemotherapy was diagnosed and treated with repeated platelet transfusions. Anticoagulant therapy was also continued. However, the patient worsened steadily and died of liver dysfunction due to multiple liver metastases.Although arterial thrombosis induced by chemotherapy is rare, it is important for physicians to consider this possibility in the course of treatment with cytotoxic agents because this complication has serious health implications.