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The aim of the current study is to evaluate the differences in the rate of perinatal group B streptococcal vertical transmission between women who correctly underwent the CDC 2002 guidelines and women who did not.Two study groups: women who correctly underwent the CDC 2002 guidelines (study group 1) and women who did not (study group 2). Intrapartum chemoprophylaxis (IC) was administered to all pregnant women identified as GBS carrier. All newborns received, in the first hour of life, a culture based screening for GBS colonization.One thousand six hundred and sixty nine women were enrolled in the study. The 2002 CDC guidelines were correctly applied in 1273 (76.3%) subjects. There was no early-onset GBS disease. No statistically significant difference in the total number of colonized newborns between study group 1 (4.1%) and study group 2 (3.3%) was found. When the analysis was limited to women with positive GBS screening, a significant difference (P < 0.001) was observed in the number of colonized newborns between mothers who received IC during at least 4 h (group 1; 3.7%) and those who received an IC during less than 4 h (group 1; 12.3%).The accurate application of the 2002 CDC guidelines is strongly supported but, to furthermore reduce the risk for GBS colonization and sepsis in the newborns, it appears desirable to identify additional and new prevention strategies.