Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and nitrogen uptake

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Nitrogen (N) is among the most important macro-nutrients significantly affecting plant growth and yield production. Accordingly, N must be supplied adequately so that optimum amounts of yield are resulted. There are different ways of supplying N to the plant including the use of chemical and biological fertilization. The chemical properties of N make it very mobile, especially under humid conditions. Hence, N must not be overfertilized with respect to the economical and environmental points of view. N Biological fertilization includes the use of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) including the N-fixing bacteria, rhizobium. There are also arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in the soil, which are symbiotic to most terrestrial plants enhancing plant growth and yield production through increasing the uptake of water and nutrients by the host plant. Numerous experiments have indicated the important role of AM fungi in enhancing P uptake by plant. However, it is yet a matter of debate that how AM fungi may affect soil N dynamic and hence plant N uptake. Some of the most important and recent aspects regarding such effects by AM fungi are highlighted, which can be of significance to health and productivity of the ecosystem.

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