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The risk of requiring allogeneic blood transfusion after total knee arthroplasty has been recently decreased with several methods such as blood donation, blood salvage, and hematinic. For patients with a low baseline hemoglobin level, however, the rate of allogeneic transfusion is still high, and an effective method for avoiding allogeneic blood transfusion has not been established. We introduced intra- and postoperative blood salvage with the Cell Saver for patients with a baseline hemoglobin level lower than 130 g/l and analyzed the frequency of allogeneic blood transfusion.From 1993 to 1997, 218 consecutive total knee arthroplasties were performed, and 155 knees with baseline hemoglobin lower than 130 g/l were included in this study. Baseline hemoglobin ranged from 62 to 129 g/l, with a mean of 110 g/l. All patients were managed with intra- and postoperative blood salvage with the Cell Saver. Preoperative autologous blood donation and/or use of hematinic was performed for 129 knees (group 1) and was not performed for 26 knees (group 2). There were no significant differences between the two groups with regard to preoperative factors. To examine the role of perioperative factors (age, sex, baseline hemoglobin level, revision procedure, preoperative blood donation, and use of hematinic) in determining the requirements for allogeneic transfusion, backward elimination logistic regression analysis was used.Seven knees (4.5%) required allogeneic transfusion. Group 1 (2.3%) exhibited a lower rate of allogeneic blood transfusion than group 2 (15.4%) (p=0.016). Hemoglobin levels on the day (p=0.016), 1 week (p=0.0001), and 2 weeks (p=0.007) after surgery were lower in group 1 than in group 2. Backward elimination logistic regression analysis showed that preoperative blood donation (p=0.048) and use of hematinic (p=0.040) were significantly associated with a requirement for allogeneic blood transfusion.Preoperative blood donation and use of hematinic were associated with a low incidence of allogeneic blood transfusion after total knee arthloplasty with intra- and postoperative blood salvage, even for patients with a baseline hemoglobin level below 130 g/l.