Complications in high tibial (medial opening wedge) osteotomy

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IntroductionThe high tibial (medial opening wedge) osteotomy (HTO) is a standard procedure in the treatment of varus gonarthrosis. This is potentially associated with various complications. The aim of this study was an analysis of complications and potential technical mistakes.Materials and methodsA total of 85 patients (49 male and 36 female) suffering from varus gonarthrosis underwent a medial opening wedge HTO. The osteotomy was fixed in 55 patients by a spacer plate (Puddu plate; group A). In group B (n=30), the osteotomies were fixed by C-plate.ResultsThe rate of complications was 43.6% in group A and 16.7% in group B (p<0.05). Infraction of the lateral tibial head is a possible intraoperative complication. This was seen in 11.7%. An additional osteosynthesis was required in group A. In contrast, the C-plate can solve this problem without additional measures. General complications of the HTO were seen: infection (4.7%), hematoma (4.7%), and thrombosis (2.3%). In every case of a severe deep infection, the osteotomy space was filled with synthetic bone graft. These grafts were used only in group A. Failure of the implants is a potential cause of loss of correction. This complication was seen nine times in group A but never in group B.ConclusionA diligent surgical technique and a convenient implant are obligatory in (medial opening wedge) HTO.

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