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The nature of the treatment of periprosthetic fractures depends on the localisation, the stability of the prosthesis and the condition of the bone. The Vancouver fracture classification has proved to be of value in determining specific modes of treatment. The current review analyses the different therapeutic options resulting in a concept of fracture-specific treatment. In this report we propose an extended version of this classification in which periprosthetic fractures associated with endoprostheses anchored in the epiphysis or metaphysis, as well as interprosthetic fractures, are taken into consideration.