Two-dimensional fluoroscopic navigation in posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a preclinical cadaver study

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ObjectivesTo assess the feasibility and accuracy of frameless stereotactic two-dimensional fluoroscopy-assisted guide pin (GP) placement in posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction in human cadavers.Materials and methodsA total of 13 pins were placed in 7 cadaver specimens, using a fluoroscopic-based navigation technique. The knees were fixed noninvasively on a carbon baseplate. Interventions were planned on intraoperatively acquired perpendicular fluoroscopic images. A stereotactic aiming device was mounted to the carbon baseplate and adjusted according to the planned trajectories. GPs were advanced through the aiming device to the precalculated depth. GP positions were verified by image fusion of the fluoroscopic planning and control data, respectively. Measurements were scored on three occasions by one independent observer. In order to assess interobserver reliability, measurements were scored by two further independent observers on one occasion.ResultsThe femoral cohort included seven GP placements in seven cadavers. Mean GP placement accuracy according to plan was 1.3 mm (SD 0.9 mm, range 0.3-3.8 mm) at the target point. The recorded femoral angular misalignment of GPs was 1.1° (SD 0.9°, range 0.2°-3.3°). The tibial cohort included six GP placements in six cadavers. Mean GP placement accuracy according to the plan was 1.8 mm (SD 2.1 mm, range 0.3-9.5 mm). The recorded tibial angular misalignment of GPs was 1.4° (SD 1.1°, range 0.1°-5°). Navigated GP implantation, as planned, was optimal in six out of seven cases in the femoral cohort and in four out of six cases in the tibial cohort.ConclusionOur preliminary cadaver study suggests that the use of fluoroscopic-based navigation combined with a stereotactic targeting device may be a helpful tool to improve PCL reconstruction. In addition, this method may also be used for other minimal invasive skeletal interventions.

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