Clinical applications of venous flaps in the reconstruction of hands and fingers

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In recent years, the venous flap has been highly regarded in microsurgical and reconstructive surgeries, especially in the reconstruction of hand and digit injuries. It is easily designed and harvested with good quality. It is thin and pliable, without the need of sacrificing a major artery at the donor site, and has no limitation on the donor site. It can be transferred not only as a pure skin flap, but also as a composite flap including tendons and nerves as well as vein grafts. All these advantages make it an optimal candidate for hand and digit reconstruction when conventional flaps are limited or unavailable. In this article, we review its classifications and the selection of donor sites, update its clinical applications, and summarize its indications for all types of venous flaps in hand and digit reconstruction.

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