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To prepare the vancomycin hydrochloride (VA)-loaded poly lactic acid-glycolic acid (PLGA) copolymer microsphere by the multiple emulsion method and evaluate its therapeutic effects on infective discitis.Firstly, the particle diameter distribution, shape, encapsulation efficiency, drug-loaded dosage and release curve of VA-PLGA microspheres were evaluated in vitro. Rabbits with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infective discitis were treated with VA-PLGA intra-discal injection. Meanwhile, VA intravenous injection, blank PLGA microspheres intra-discal injection served as controls. Thirty days later, therapeutic effects were evaluated through X-ray radiophotography, histopathological and bacteriological examination.Mean particle diameter was between 61.57 ± 4.37 and 67.45 ± 8.13 μm, and mean encapsulation efficiency was between 60.20 ± 1.61 and 75.27 ± 1.60 %m/m. In vitro release experiment showed that the release time was over 30 days. The result of in vivo experiment showed that inflammatory reaction in the VA-PLGA intra-discal injection group was milder than the intravenous injection group (P < 0.05), also with less inflammation. The bacterial count was also significantly lower (1.02 × 103 ± 1.22 × 103 CFU/g) than the intravenous injection group (7.51 × 104 ± 7.16 × 104 CFU/g) (P < 0.05). Besides these data, the amount used in VA-PLGA intra-discal injection group is about 20 mg, and that used in the intravenous injection group is about 2.4 g. So, we just use 1/120 of VA i.v. to obtain the better results with our microparticles.Intra-discal injection with VA-PLGA sustained-release microspheres can use much less dosage, and effectively control and reduce infective discitis, and the therapeutic effect is superior to that of intravenous injection. A need for the clinical trials will be carried out in the near future.