Primary hyperparathyroidism is a relatively common problem encountered by any endocrine surgical unit. Ectopic parathyroid adenomas have been known to be a common cause of persistent hyperparathyroidism after surgery. A common site of the missed ectopic gland will be that in the mediastinum. However, with the increasing improvement in available imaging, it is likely that this can be diagnosed preoperatively. The surgical approach to the mediastinal parathyroid has also changed vastly over the last decade from maximally invasive to minimally invasive with minimal complications. We provide a review on the entity of mediastinal parathyroid adenomas and their surgical implications.