Risk factors for development of primary bladder squamous cell carcinoma

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The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of risk factors for primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the bladder.


A total of 90 cases of primary SCC of the bladder were identified through multicentre analysis. Patient demographics, stage and grade of cancer at presentation, management and outcomes were recorded. The presence of known risk factors (catheter use, neuropathic bladder, smoking history, recurrent urinary tract infection and bladder stones) was also documented.


Over half of the patients had at least one identifiable risk factor for the development of primary bladder SCC: 13.9% of patients had a history of catheter use (clean intermittent self-catheterisation [CISC] in 11.1%), 10.0% of patients had a neuropathic bladder, 27.8% were smokers or ex-smokers and 20.0% had a documented history of recurrent urinary tract infection. Statistical analysis of the results showed no association between risk factors and grade of tumour at presentation.


These data further support the association between primary bladder SCC and several of the well documented risk factors for its development. Chronic use of CISC may confer a greater risk for development of SCC than thought previously. Further evidence of the role of CISC in primary SCC is required to justify routine screening and to determine exactly when surveillance of the bladder should begin for this group of patients.

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