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Cholelithiasis usually can be managed successfully by endoscopic sphincterotomy. Choledochoduodenostomy (CDD) is one of the surgical treatment options but its acceptance remains debated because of the risk of reflux cholangitis and sump syndrome. The aim of this study was to assess the current features and outcomes of patient undergoing CDD.We retrospectively analysed the surgical results of consecutive 130 patients treated by CDD between 1991 and 2013 and excluded five cases with a malignant disorder. Indications for surgery included endoscopic management where stones were difficult or failed to pass and primary common bile duct stones with choledochal dilatation. Incidences of reflux cholangitis, stone recurrence, pancreatitis or sump syndrome were investigated and the data between end-to-side and side-to-side CDD were compared.Reflux cholangitis and stone recurrence was 1.6% (2/125) and 0% (0/125) of cases by CDD. There is no therapeutic-related pancreatitis in CDD. Sump syndrome was not also observed in side-to-side CDD.This study is a first comparative study between end-to-side and side-to-side CDD. The surgical outcomes for CDD treatment of choledocholithiasis were acceptable. The incidence of reflux cholangitis, stone recurrence, pancreatitis and sump syndrome was very low.