Natriuretic Factors and Nitric Oxide Suppress Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Expression in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells: Role of cGMP in the Regulation of the Plasminogen System

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Increased expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) has been reported in atherosclerotic and balloon-injured vessels. Little is known regarding the factors and mechanisms that may negatively regulate PAI-1 expression. In this report, the effect of cGMP-coupled vasoactive hormones, including natriuretic factors and nitric oxide, on the regulation of PAI-1 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells was examined. Atrial natriuretic factor 1-28 (ANF) and C-type natriuretic factor-22 (CNP) reduced angiotensin II (Ang II)- and platelet-derived growth factor-stimulated PAI-1 mRNA expression in rat aortic smooth muscle cells by 50% to 70%, with corresponding reductions in PAI-1 protein release. Treatment of human aortic smooth muscle cells with CNP similarly inhibited both platelet-derived growth factor-induced PAI-1 mRNA expression and PAI-1 protein release by 50%. Dose-response studies revealed that the inhibitory effects of CNP and ANF on PAI-1 expression were concentration dependent, with IC50 s of [tilde operator]1 nmol/L for both natriuretic peptides. Ang II-stimulated PAI-1 expression was also inhibited by the nitric oxide donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine. The membrane-permeant cGMP analogue 8-Br-cGMP reduced Ang II-stimulated PAI-1 expression by 60%, and an inhibitor of soluble guanylyl cyclase (1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one) significantly impaired the inhibitory effects of S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine on Ang II-stimulated PAI-1 expression. Studies of PAI-1 mRNA stability in cells treated with actinomycin D showed that ANF did not alter PAI-1 mRNA half-life, suggesting that natriuretic factors reduce PAI-1 transcription. These data show that natriuretic factors and nitric oxide, via a cGMP-dependent mechanism, inhibit PAI-1 synthesis in vascular smooth muscle cells. Thus, cGMP-coupled vasoactive hormones may play an important role in suppressing vascular PAI-1 expression. (Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1998;18:1771-1779.)

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