Genotype-Specific Transcriptional Regulation of PAI-1 Gene by Insulin, Hypertriglyceridemic VLDL, and Lp(a) in Transfected, Cultured Human Endothelial Cells

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Abstract

Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) has been shown to be an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease. Variations in plasma PAI-1 levels have been attributed to variations in the PAI-1 gene, and associations between PAI-1 levels and PAI-1 genotypes suggest that PAI-1 expression may be regulated in a genotype-specific manner by insulin, hypertriglyceridemic (HTG) very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), or lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)]. Polymerase chain reaction-amplified 1106-bp fragments of the promoter of the 1/1 and 2/2 PAI-1 genotypes were sequenced and showed 5 regions of small nucleotide differences in the 1/1 versus 2/2 PAI-1 promoters that consistently occurred with high frequency. These fragments were ligated into the luciferase reporter gene, and 1/1 and 2/2 PAI-1 genotype human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) cultures were transiently transfected with their respective p1PAI110/luc and p2PAI110/luc constructs and vice versa. Insulin induced an [tilde operator]12- to 16-fold increase in luciferase activity in both the 1/1 and 2/2 PAI-1 genotype HUVEC cultures transfected with the p1PAI110/luc construct. HTG-VLDL and Lp(a) induced luciferase activity by [tilde operator]14- to 16- and [tilde operator]8- to 11-fold, respectively, in both the 1/1 and 2/2 PAI-1 genotype HUVEC cultures transfected with the p2PAI110/luc construct. The positive control interleukin-1 showed an [tilde operator]7- to 12-fold response in the 1/1 and 2/2 PAI-1 genotype HUVEC cultures transfected with either of the constructs. These cross-over results demonstrate that regulation of either the 1/1 or 2/2 PAI-1 genotype by its respective inducer is due to the promoter itself and not to some factor(s) expressed differently in the 1/1 or 2/2 PAI-1 genotype HUVEC cultures. (Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1998;18:1803-1809.)

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