Tetradecylselenoacetic Acid, a PPAR Ligand With Antioxidant, Antiinflammatory, and Hypolipidemic Properties

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Objective—Antioxidants protect against oxidative stress and inflammation, which, in combination with hyperlipidemia, are important mediators of atherogenesis. Here we present a selenium-substituted fatty acid, tetradecylselenoacetic acid (TSA), which is hypothesized to have antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and hypolipidemic properties.Methods and Results—We show that TSA exerts antioxidant properties by delaying the onset of oxidation of human low density lipoprotein (LDL), by reducing the uptake of oxidized LDL in murine macrophages, and by increasing the mRNA level of superoxide dismutase in rat liver. TSA also showed antiinflammatory effects by suppressing the release of interleukin (IL)-2 and -4, and by increasing the release of IL-10 in human blood leukocytes. In addition, TSA decreased the plasma triacylglycerol level and increased the mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation in rat liver. In pigs, TSA seemed to reduce coronary artery intimal thickening after percutaneous coronary intervention. In HepG2 cells TSA activated all peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in a dose-dependent manner.Conclusions—Our data suggest that TSA exert potent antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and hypolipidemic properties, potentially involving PPAR-related mechanisms. Based on these effects, it is tempting to hypothesize that TSA could be an interesting antiatherogenic approach to atherosclerotic disorders.

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