Hepatic Overexpression of Idol Increases Circulating Protein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin Type 9 in Mice and Hamsters via Dual Mechanisms: Sterol Regulatory Element–Binding Protein 2 and Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor–Dependent Pathways

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Low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) is degraded by inducible degrader of LDLR (Idol) and protein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), thereby regulating circulating LDL levels. However, it remains unclear whether, and if so how, these LDLR degraders affect each other. We therefore investigated effects of liver-specific expression of Idol on LDL/PCSK9 metabolism in mice and hamsters.

Approach and Results—

Injection of adenoviral vector expressing Idol (Ad-Idol) induced a liver-specific reduction in LDLR expression which, in turn, increased very-low-density lipoprotein/LDL cholesterol levels in wild-type mice because of delayed LDL catabolism. Interestingly, hepatic Idol overexpression markedly increased plasma PCSK9 levels. In LDLR-deficient mice, plasma PCSK9 levels were already elevated at baseline and unchanged by Idol overexpression, which was comparable with the observation for Ad-Idol–injected wild-type mice, indicating that Idol-induced PCSK9 elevation depended on LDLR. In wild-type mice, but not in LDLR-deficient mice, Ad-Idol enhanced hepatic PCSK9 expression, with activation of sterol regulatory element–binding protein 2 and subsequently increased expression of its target genes. Supporting in vivo findings, Idol transactivated PCSK9/LDLR in sterol regulatory element–binding protein 2/LDLR-dependent manners in vitro. Furthermore, an in vivo kinetic study using 125I-labeled PCSK9 revealed delayed clearance of circulating PCSK9, which could be another mechanism. Finally, to extend these findings into cholesteryl ester transfer protein–expressing animals, we repeated the above in vivo experiments in hamsters and obtained similar results.


A vicious cycle in LDLR degradation might be generated by PCSK9 induced by hepatic Idol overexpression via dual mechanisms: sterol regulatory element–binding protein 2/LDLR. Furthermore, these effects would be independent of cholesteryl ester transfer protein expression.

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