Intravenous Glucose Acutely Stimulates Intestinal Lipoprotein Secretion in Healthy Humans

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Abstract

Objective—

Increased production of intestinal triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) contributes to dyslipidemia and increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. We have previously demonstrated that enteral glucose enhances lipid-stimulated intestinal lipoprotein particle secretion. Here, we assessed whether glucose delivered systemically by intravenous infusion also enhances intestinal lipoprotein particle secretion in humans.

Approach and Results—

On 2 occasions, 4 to 6 weeks apart and in random order, 10 healthy men received a constant 15-hour intravenous infusion of either 20% glucose to induce hyperglycemia or normal saline as control. Production of TRL–apolipoprotein B48 (apoB48, primary outcomes) and apoB100 (secondary outcomes) was assessed during hourly liquid-mixed macronutrient formula ingestion with stable isotope enrichment and multicompartmental modeling, under pancreatic clamp conditions to limit perturbations in pancreatic hormones (insulin and glucagon) and growth hormone. Compared with saline infusion, glucose infusion induced both hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, increased plasma triglyceride levels, and increased TRL-apoB48 concentration and production rate (P<0.05), without affecting TRL-apoB48 fractional catabolic rate. No significant effect of hyperglycemia on TRL-apoB100 concentration and kinetic parameters was observed.

Conclusions—

Short-term intravenous infusion of glucose stimulates intestinal lipoprotein production. Hyperglycemia may contribute to intestinal lipoprotein overproduction in type 2 diabetes.

Clinical Trial Registration—

URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02607839.

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