Murine models of atherosclerosis are useful for investigating the environmental and genetic influences on lesion formation and composition. Apoe−/− and Ldlr−/− mice are the 2 most extensively used models. The models differ in important ways with respect to the precise mechanism by which their absence enhances atherosclerosis, including differences in plasma lipoproteins. The majority of the gene function studies have utilized only 1 model, with the results being generalized to atherogenic mechanisms. In only a relatively few cases have studies been conducted in both atherogenic murine models. This review will discuss important differences between the 2 atherogenic models and will point out studies that have been performed in the 2 models where results are comparable and those where different results were obtained.