Serum sodium concentration is maintained by osmoregulation within normal range of 135 to 145 mmol/L. Previous analysis of data from the ARIC study (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) showed association of serum sodium with the 10-year risk scores of coronary heart disease and stroke. Current study evaluated the association of within-normal-range serum sodium with cardiovascular risk factors.Approach and Results—
Only participants who did not take cholesterol or blood pressure medications and had sodium within normal 135 to 145 mmol/L range were included (n=8615), and the cohort was stratified based on race, sex, and smoking status. Multiple linear regression analysis of data from ARIC study was performed, with adjustment for age, blood glucose, insulin, glomerular filtration rate, body mass index, waist to hip ratio, and calorie intake. The analysis showed positive associations with sodium of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio; apolipoprotein B; and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Increases in lipids and blood pressure associated with 10 mmol/L increase in sodium are similar to the increases associated with 7 to 10 years of aging. Analysis of sodium measurements made 3 years apart demonstrated that it is stable within 2 to 3 mmol/L, explaining its association with long-term health outcomes. Furthermore, elevated sodium promoted lipid accumulation in cultured adipocytes, suggesting direct causative effects on lipid metabolism.Conclusions—
Serum sodium concentration is a cardiovascular risk factor even within the normal reference range. Thus, decreasing sodium to the lower end of the normal range by modification of water and salt intake is a personalizable strategy for decreasing cardiovascular risks.